印尼項目

Indonesia Project

As an essential carbon sink, the peatlands play a major role in the global carbon cycle and have been deeply affected by the impacts of human activity and climate change.

Indonesia contains 47% of the world’s tropical peatlands mainly peat swamp forests covering the vast lowlands between major rivers in Sumatra (8.3 million hectares), Kalimantan (6.8 million hectares), and Papua (4.6 million hectares).

Peat swamp forests form where saturated soils or frequent flooding cause the partial decay of organic material. The accumulation of so much material means tropical peat swamp forests store a lot of carbon: up to 10 to 20 times more than nearby lowland forests on mineral soil, depending on forest age and soil depth.

When a forest is cut down, the loss of aboveground carbon is obvious. But in peat swamp forests, 90 percent of the carbon is stored underground, making the problem of peatland destruction difficult to see.

This pilot initiative aims to mitigate climate change through the restoration of Indonesia’s peat swamp forests. The application of Mycorrhizal fungi can enhance the growth of native tree species. With the degradation of peatlands on the rise globally, the potential for positive impact is great.

Collaborators

This project is a partnership between The Mushroom Initiative (TMI) and the Forest Research and Development Centre (FRDC), one of four centers under the Research, Development & Innovation Agency of Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

Pilot Project Objectives

The objectives of the project are

  1. To establish demonstration plots of tropical peat swamp forests with native trees inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi for ecological and human protection.
  2. To disseminate restoration technology based on the application of mycorrhizal fungi in degraded tropical peat swamp forests.
  3. To set up a climate change mitigation model for measuring carbon stock in peat swamp forests to quantify the impact of mycorrhizal fungi in reforestation efforts.

Project Highlight

  1. Mycorrhizal fungi enhance host plant growth by increasing the absorption of nutrients, particularly phosphorus. As such, the application of mycorrhizal fungi is a novel and effective reforestation method. Mycorrhizal fungi used for inoculation include AMF (Gigaspora sp., Entrophospora sp., and Acaulospora sp.) and ECM (Chantharellus sp., Boletus sp., Amanita sp., and Scleroderma sinamariense).
  2. We apply the fungi to native tree species such as Melaleuca leucadendron, Combretocarpus rotundatus, Dyera polyphylla, Shorea balangeran, and Alstonia pneumatophora.
  3. Seedling containers are produced by local community partners through fair trade principles using fully biodegradable organic materials such as bamboo, purun, and rumbia.
  4. We measure changes to the carbon sink in reforested areas annually to quantify the impacts of the reforestation process on carbon sequestration.

Principle Investigator 

Dr. Ir. Maman Turjaman (pictured) is a senior scientist and a well-known mycologist with a background in Mycorrhizal research in the Indonesian peatlands.

The first project site is located in Pulang Pisau Regency in Central Kalimantan, at Tumbang Nusa Forest research station (KHDTK). The site is managed by the Forestry Research Institute of Banjarbaru of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry’s Forestry Research, Development, and Innovation Agency.

The second project site is in the Pedamaran Limited Production Forest (LPF) in Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatra. It is managed by the Forest Management Unit (FMU) of the Forest Service Office of South Sumatra Province.

Project Details and Update

TMI Project sites

  • Tumbang Nusa (Central Kalimatan)

The first TMI project location is the Tumbang Nusa Forest research station (KHDTK), a peat swamp forest in Jabiren Raya subdistrict, Pulang Pisau Regency, Central Kalimantan province.

The Tumbang Nusa KHDTK, approximately 5000 ha in size, is managed by the Forestry Research Institute of Banjarbaru, of Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry’s Forestry Research, Development, and Innovation Agency.

At altitude of 0 to 5 meters above sea level and an elevation of 0% to 18%, these relatively flat, secondary peat swamp forests have a humid tropical climate. The average temperature is 27oC with an average rainfall of 3383 mm annually. Dry months are from July to September. Vegetation is mainly dense natural tumih (Combretocarpus rotundatus) and several species of peat swamp trees. The endangered Bornean orangutan, the black-naped monarch, and the Oriental dwarf kingfisher live in surrounding areas.

This figure illustrates dominant vegetation cover in the measurement plot:

After a major fire in 2015, revegetation activities were conducted by various organizations. These activities included the planting of more than 25,000 seedlings by 1,700 volunteers. Other activities focused on research and development, supported by national and international funding bodies. One of these international organizations is The Mushroom Initiative, here focused on the application of Mycorrhizal fungi to restore degraded tropical peat swamp forest.

We aim for Tumbang Nusa KHDTK to become a science education site, or “edu-park,” to promote peat forest rehabilitation technology through the 3 R’s: restoration, rewetting, and revitalization.

  • Pedamaran Limited Production Forest (South Sumatra)

Pedamaran Limited Production Forest (LPF) covers an area of ​​10,021 hectares across three districts of South Sumatra’s OKI Regency: Pedamaran, Pedamaran Timur, and Pampangan. It is managed by the Forest Management Unit (FMU) Region V, Lempuing Mesuji, of the Forest Service Office of South Sumatra.

The Pedamaran LPF is part of the peat swamp forests located in the River Hydrological Unit (RHU) of the Sibumbung River and has an average peat depth of more than 3 meters.

The collaboration between the Forest Research Center Development (FRDC) and The Mushroom Initiative (TMI) involves a 100-hectare restoration pilot plot located in the Special Block. Revegetation activities in these areas will be carried out in stages: 10 hectares in 2019, 45 hectares in 2020, and 45 hectares in 2021.

The pilot plot is located in an area that saw serious fires in 2015. In 2019, the area was dominated by open areas in a natural succession of vegetation.

The following figures show the natural succession conditions in plot restoration area in Pedamaran LPF, South Sumatra; (a) shrimp ferns (Stenochlaena palustris) and (b) gelam (Melaleuca leucadendron):

We will be planting these diversified native tree species:

In Central Kalimantan

1. Balangeran (Shorea balangeran)

2. Galam (Melaleuca cajuputi)

3. Merapat (Combretocarpus rotundatus)

4. Pelawan merah (Tristaniopsis marguensis)

5. Papung (Sarcotheca diversifolia)

6. Meranti rawa  (Shorea teysmanniana)

7. Pulai (Alstonia pneumatophora)

8. Jelutung (Dyera polyphyla)

9. Punak (Tetramerista glabra)

10. Gerunggang ( Cratoxylum glaucum)

In South Sumatra

1. Balangeran (Shorea balangeran)

2. Galam (Melaleuca cajuputi)

3. Merapat (Combretocarpus rotundatus)

4. Pelawan merah (Tristaniopsis marguensis)

5. Kranji (Indum dialum)

6. Meranti rawa  (Shorea teysmanniana)

7. Pulai (Alstonia pneumatophora)

8. Jelutung (Dyera polyphyla)

9. Beriang (Ploiarium alternifolium)

10. Gerunggang ( Cratoxylum glaucum)

More native species will be identified in both sites and added from time to time.

Collaboration partner in Indonesia

Forest Research and Development Centre (FRDC), is one of four centres under Research, Development & Innovation Agency under Ministry of Environment and Forestry in Indonesia.

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